Salle / Hall : Bibliothèque CUJAS - Salle de conférences
Horaire / Schedule : 16h40 - 18h00
Président de séance : Irène Bouhadana (Droit des données, des administrations numériques et des gouvernements ouverts - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Secrétaire générale de l'IMODEV - France)
Langue / Language : English
'Open Government' is a doctrine requiring that governments commit to a high level of transparency and provide mechanisms for public scrutiny and supervision, so as to ensure public trust, governmental accountability and a better functioning democracy.
Yet, while the idea of "open government" is slowly but surely spreading, inter alia in Europe, America and Oceania, much remains to be done. Indeed, even in Norway, whose commitment to open government is recognized worldwide, many aspects are still in need of improvement.
The collection of essays in this book explores these important issues and raises fundamental questions regarding the role national parliaments plays - or ought to play - in promoting openness and transparency. Additionally it continues some reflections on the various ways they handle these challenges in a context of internationalization and europeanization.
The book aims at contributing to an international and constructive dialogue towards more democratic participating and transparency worldwide, especially via or with the support of the parliamentary institutions.
I. Bouhadana, W. Gilles & I. Nguyên-Duy (sous la dir.) – R. Weaver (Preface),Parliaments in the Open Government Era, Imodev Edition, Paris, 2016.
The aims of parliamentary openess are: promoting a culture of openness, making parliamentary information transparent, easing access to parliamentary information and enabling electronic communication of parliamentary information (<LINK openingparliament.org/>OpeningParliament.org</link>, Declaration of parliamentary openness, [on line], «<LINK openingparliament.org/static/pdfs/english.pdf>http://openingparliament.org/static/pdfs/english.pdf</link>), read the 7/11/2016).
This requirement of transparency ensues directly from powers which the people representatives are surrounded due to their election. The article 6 of the Human rights Declaration provides that " the Law is the expression of the general will. All the citizens have right to contribute personally, or by their representatives, to its formation. " Thus the laws are create, according to a well known legal fiction, by the people and for the people. They cannot be created in the shade and without control, at the risk of creating a form of disaffection of the citizens towards them. The real stake is the democratic conception of the rule of law in itself. The circulation of information, involving in particular the conception of laws can help to enhance the access to the law (also called « Right to Law »). The access to the parliamentaries informations allows the citizens to be aware of dicussed laws and to give a real meaning of the maxim ‘’ignorance of the law is no excuse’’. The citizen is not designed any more as a passive actor and becomes more active in the appropriation of the legal information dans the understanding of the parliamentaries stakes and in a more global perspective the decision making way.
The aim of this intervention is to wonder if the opening of parliaments contributes to the « Right to Law » and what are the most efficient tools to reach there.
The Top secret affairs are frequent in the diplomatic and military fields but can an information be disclosed for democratic purpose? What national interest is more important? Democracy or the strategic interests which need to remain secret in order to avoid that the competitor countries ajust their decisions? What are the boundaries of the Open Parliament in top-secret matters?
El Parlamento en cualquier democracia es el corazón del gobierno democrático representativo y, paradójicamente, su quehacer cotidiano se ha convertido en una caja negra, ajena al escrutinio ciudadano. La ciudadanía carece de información para entender qué hacen los legisladores, cómo arriban a ciertas determinaciones y cuales son los elementos esenciales para aprobar, rechazar o modificar una determinada pieza legislativa. Las democracias están ávidas de incrementar sus márgenes de legitimación, en especial las democracias emergentes como es el caso de la mexicana. Los planteamientos esenciales de Parlamento Abierto en México buscan abrir canales de participación en la lógica propia de la democracia representativa. El papel de la sociedad civil ha sido fundamental para presionar y exigir al Congreso de la Unión que asuma políticas propias del Parlamento Abierto. La ponencia hará una evaluación de esta participación.